Learning can be affectively inaccessible when success requires that students monitor and reflect on their own emotional progress and when there are no options for individuals who have difficulty in doing so. Since there is great variability in students’ capability for monitoring their emotions and reactivity; students will need varied amounts of explicit instruction and modeling, scaffolded practice with gradual release, and targeted feedback in order to make progress. Because of individual differences, multiple models and scaffolds of varied techniques should be offered so that students can identify, select and use the techniques that are personally optimal. The experimental evidence listed here suggests the effectiveness of, and the strategies for, developing students’ self-questioning, self-monitoring, and self-determination skills. The scholarly reviews and opinions provide a more classroom-based perspective on the importance of developing students’ abilities for self-assessment and reflection.
Experimental & Quantitative Evidence
Agran, M., Blanchard, C., Wehmeyer, M., & Hughes, C. (2002). Increasing the problem-solving skills of students with developmental disabilities participating in general education. Remedial and Special Education, 23(5), 279-288.
Agran, M., Wehmeyer, M. L., Cavin, M., & Palmer, S. (2008). Promoting student active classroom participation skills through instruction to promote self-regulated learning and self-determination. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 31(2), 106-114.
Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647-663.
Brewer, M. B., & Hewstone, M. (2004). Emotion and motivation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Butler, D. L. (1997). The roles of goal setting and self-monitoring in students' self-regulated engagement in tasks.Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997).
de Bruin, A. B. H. (2007). Improving metacomprehension accuracy and self-regulation in cognitive skill acquisition:The effect of learner expertise. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19(4/5), 671-688.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1992). The initiation and regulation of intrinsically motivated learning and achievement.In A. K. Boggiano, & T. S. Pittman (Eds.), Achievement and motivation: A social developmental perspective (pp. 3-36). Toronto, ON: Cambridge University Press.
Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., Sivan, E., Rackliffe, G., Book, C., Meloth, M., et al. (1987). Effects of explaining the reasoning associated with using reading strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(3), 347-368.
Fyrstén, S., Nurmi, J. E., & Lyytinen, H. (2006). The role of achievement beliefs and behaviours in spontaneous reading acquisition. Learning and Instruction, 16(6), 569-582.
Lancaster, P. E., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (2002). The development and validation of an interactive hypermedia program for teaching a self-advocacy strategy to students with disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(4), 277-302.
Nolan, T. E. (1991). Self-questioning and prediction: Combining metacognitive strategies. Journal of Reading, 35(2), 132-138.
Ohtake, Y., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2004). Applying the self-determination theory to Japanese special education contexts: A four-step model. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 1(3-4), 169-178.
Ridley, D. S. (1992). Self-regulated learning: The interactive influence of metacognitive awareness and goal-setting. Journal of Experimental Education, 60(4), 293-306.
Sawyer, R. J. (1992). Direct teaching, strategy instruction, and strategy instruction with explicit self-regulation:Effects on the composition skills and self-efficacy of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 340-352.
Schunk, D. H. (1985). Participation in goal setting: Effects on self-efficacy and skills of learning-disabled children.Journal of Special Education, 19(3), 307-317.
Schunk, D. H. (1996). Goal and self-evaluative influences during children's cognitive skill learning. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 359-382.
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1997). Developing self-efficacious readers and writers: The role of social and self-regulatory processes. In J. T. Guthrie, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 34-50). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Shogren, K. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Buchanan, C. L., & Lopez, S. J. (2006). The application of positive psychology and self-determination to research in intellectual disability: A content analysis of 30 years of literature. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(4), 338-345.
Shogren, K. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Soukup, J. H., Little, T. D., Garner, N., et al. (2008).Understanding the construct of self-determination: Examining the relationship between the Arc's Self-Determination Scale and the American Institutes for Research Self-Determination Scale. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33(2), 94-107.
Wehmeyer, M. L., & Palmer, S. B. (2003). Adult outcomes for students with cognitive disabilities three years after high school: The impact of self-determination. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 38(2), 131-144.
Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Soukup, J. H., Garner, N. W., & Lawrence, M. (2007). Self-determination and student transition planning knowledge and skills: Predicting involvement. Exceptionality, 15(1), 31-44.
Wong, B. Y. L., & Jones, W. (1982). Increasing metacomprehension in learning disabled and normally achieving students through self-questioning training. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 5(3), 228-240.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (1996). Self-regulated learning of a motoric skill: The role of goal setting and self-monitoring. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 8(1), 60-75.
Scholarly Reviews & Expert Opinions
Anderson, A. (1997). Learning strategies in physical education: Self-talk, imagery, and goal-setting. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 68(1), 30-35.
Banda, D. R., Matuszny, R. M., & Turkan, S. (2007). Video modeling strategies to enhance appropriate behaviors in children with autism. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(6), 47-52.
Carroll, J., & Christenson, C. N. K. (1995). Teaching and learning about student goal setting in a fifth-grade classroom. Language Arts, 72(1), 42-49.
Clark, F. L., Deshler, D. D., Schumaker, J. B., Alley, G. R., & Warner, M. M. (1984). Visual imagery and self-questioning: Strategies to improve comprehension of written material. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17(3), 145-149.
Lee, S., Palmer, S., Turnbull, A., & Wehmeyer, M. (2006). A model for parent-teacher collaboration to promote self-determination in young children with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(3), 36-41.
Montague, M. (2007). Self-regulation and mathematics instruction. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(1), 75-83.
Palmer, S. B., Wehmeyer, M. L., Gipson, K., & Agran, M. (2004). Promoting access to the general curriculum by teaching self-determination skills. Exceptional Children, 70(4), 427-440.
Price, L. A., Wolensky, D., & Mulligan, R. (2002). Self-determination in action in the classroom. Remedial and Special Education, 23(2), 109.
Reid, R. (1996). Research in self-monitoring with students with learning disabilities: The present, the prospects, the pitfalls. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(3), 317-331.
Ryan, R. M., Connell, J. P., & Grolnick, W. S. (1992). When achievement is not intrinsically motivated: A theory of internalization and self-regulation in school. In K. Boggiano, & T. Pittman (Eds.), Achievement and motivation: A social development perspective (pp. 167-188). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schumaker, J. B., Deshler, D. D., Nolan, S. M., & Alley, G. R. (1994). The self-questioning strategy. Lawrence, KS:The University of Kansas.
Schunk, D. H. (2003). Self-efficacy for reading and writing: Influence of modeling, goal setting, and self-evaluation.Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 159-172.
Test, D. W., Mason, C., Hughes, C., Konrad, M., Neale, M., & Wood, W. M. (2004). Student involvement in individualized education program meetings. Exceptional Children, 70(4), 391-413.
Watson, J. S. (1998). ‘‘If you don’t have it, you can’t find it.” A close look at students’ perceptions of using technology. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 49(11), 1024-1036.
Webre, E. C. (2005). Enhancing reading success with collaboratively created progress charts. Intervention in School and Clinic, 40(5), 291-295.
Wehmeyer, M. (1997). Self-determination as an educational outcome: A definitional framework and implications for intervention. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 9(3), 175-209.
Wehmeyer, M., & Schwartz, M. (1997). Self-determination and positive adult outcomes: A follow-up study of youth with mental retardation or learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 63(2), 245-255.
Wehmeyer, M. L. (2007). Promoting self-determination in students with developmental disabilities. New York, NY:The Guilford Press.
Wehmeyer, M. L., Field, S., Doren, B., Jones, B., & Mason, C. (2004). Self-determination and student involvement in standards-based reform. Exceptional Children, 70(4), 413-426.
Wehmeyer, M. L., & Palmer, S. B. (2000). Promoting the acquisition and development of self-determination in young children with disabilities. Early Education and Development, 11(4), 465-481.