Learning can be affectively inaccessible when successful learning requires students to cope with negative emotions and frustrations and when there are no options for students who have difficulty in doing so. In order to develop effective self-regulatory skills, students must be exposed to varied strategies – reminders, models, checklists and so forth – that will help them to identify the coping mechanisms for managing the emotions that work best for them. The evidence listed below suggests the effectiveness of strategies such as developing help-seeking strategies, providing scaffolds and feedback for managing frustration, and building internal controls. The scholarly reviews and opinions provide a more classroom-based perspective on the importance of scaffolding students’ coping skills and strategies.
Experimental & Quantitative Evidence
Agran, M., Blanchard, C., Wehmeyer, M., & Hughes, C. (2001). Teaching students to self-regulate their behavior:The differential effects of student-vs. teacher-delivered reinforcement. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 22(4), 319-332.
Bong, M. (2008). Effects of parent-child relationships and classroom goal structures on motivation, help-seeking avoidance, and cheating. Journal of Experimental Education, 76(2), 191-217.
Bouffard-Bouchard, T., Parent, S., & Larivee, S. (1991). Influence of self-efficacy on self-regulation and performance among junior and senior high-school age students. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 14(2), 153-164.
Brewer, M. B., & Hewstone, M. (2004). Emotion and motivation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Brooks, A., Todd, A. W., Tofflemoyer, S., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Use of functional assessment and a self-management system to increase academic engagement and work completion. Journal of Positive Behavior, 53, 144-152.
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2005). Engagement, disengagement, coping, and catastrophe. In A. J. Elliot, & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 527-547). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Cleary, T. J., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2004). Self-regulation empowerment program: A school-based program to enhance self-regulated and self-motivated cycles of student learning. Psychology in the Schools, 41(5), 537-550.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1992). The initiation and regulation of intrinsically motivated learning and achievement.In A. K. Boggiano, & T. S. Pittman (Eds.), Achievement and motivation: A social developmental perspective (pp. 3-36). Toronto, ON: Cambridge University Press.
El-Alayli, A., & Baumgardner, A. (2003). If at first you don't succeed, what makes you try,try again? Effects of implicit theories and ability feedback in a performance-oriented climate. Self & Identity, 2(2), 119-135.
Evans, S. W., Pelham, W., & Grudberg, M. V. (1994). The efficacy of notetaking to improve behavior and comprehension of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Exceptionality, 5(1), 1-17.
Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, A., & Gruen, R. J. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(5), 992-1003.
Hannula, M. S. (2006). Motivation in mathematics: Goals reflected in emotions. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 63(2), 165-178.
Hofer, B. K., Yu, S. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (1998). Teaching college students to be self-regulated learners. In D. H. Schunk, & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning from teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 57-85).New York: Guilford.
Hole, J. L., & Crozier, W. R. (2007). Dispositional and situational learning goals and children's self-regulation.British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(4), 773-786.
Karabenick, S. A. (2004). Perceived achievement goal structure and college student help seeking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 569-581.
Lancaster, P. E., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (2002). The development and validation of an interactive hypermedia program for teaching a self-advocacy strategy to students with disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(4), 277-302.
Lee, J. K., & Lee, W. K. (2008). The relationship of e-Learner’s self-regulatory efficacy and perception of e-learning environmental quality. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(1), 32-47.
Lizarraga, M. L. S. d. A., Ugarte, M. D., Iriarte, M. D., & Baquedano, M. T. S. d. A. (2003). Immediate and long-term effects of a cognitive intervention on intelligent, self-regulations, and academic achievement. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18(1), 59-75.
Lodewyk, K. R., Winne, P. H., & Jamieson-Noel, D. L. (2009). Implications of task structure on self-regulated learning and achievement. Educational Psychology, 29(1), 1-25.
Malmivuori, M. (2006). Affect and self-regulation. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 63(2), 149-164.
Marchand, G., & Skinner, E. A. (2007). Motivational dynamics of children's academic help-seeking and concealment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 65-82.
Mercier, J., & Frederiksen, C. H. (2007). Individual differences in graduate students' help-seeking process in using a computer coach in problem-based learning. Learning & Instruction, 17(2), 184-203.
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodrigiez, M. L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244(4907), 933-938.
Newman, R. S. (1998). Students' help seeking during problem solving: Influences of personal and contextual achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 644-658.
Newman, R. S., & Schwager, M. T. (1995). Students' help seeking during problem solving: Effects of grade, goal, and prior achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 352-376.
Paulsen, M. B., & Feldman, K. A. (2005). The conditional and interaction effects of epistemological beliefs on the self-regulated learning of college students: Motivational strategies. Research in Higher Education, 46(7), 731-768.
Roll, I., Aleven, V., McLaren, B. M., & Koedinger, K. R. (2007). Designing for metacognition - applying cognitive tutor principles to the tutoring of help seeking. Metacognition and Learning, 2(2), 125-140.
Ryan, A. M., Shim, S., & Patrick, H. (2005). Differential profiles of students identified by their teacher as having avoidant, appropriate, or dependent help-seeking tendencies in the classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 275-285.
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1997). Developing self-efficacious readers and writers: The role of social and self-regulatory processes. In J. T. Guthrie, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 34-50). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Shih, S. (2007). The role of motivational characteristics in Taiwanese sixth graders' avoidance of help seeking in the classroom. Elementary School Journal, 107(5), 473-495.
Wood, H., & Wood, D. (1999). Help seeking, learning and contingent tutoring. Computers & Education, 33(2-3), 153-169.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment.American Educational Research Journal, 31(4), 845-862.
Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 663-676.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 51-59.
Scholarly Reviews & Expert Opinions
Aleven, V., Stahl, E., Schworm, S., Fischer, F., & Wallace, R. (2003). Help seeking and help design in interactive learning environments. Review of Educational Research, 73(3), 277-320.
Banda, D. R., Matuszny, R. M., & Turkan, S. (2007). Video modeling strategies to enhance appropriate behaviors in children with autism. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(6), 47-52.
Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion, 7(2), 336-353.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Prentice, K., Burch, M., & Paulsen, K. (2002). Hot math: Promoting mathematical problem solving among third-grade students with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(1), 70-73.
Guthrie, J. T., & Cox, K. E. (2001). Classroom conditions for motivation and engagement in reading. Educational Psychology Review, 13(3), 283-302.
Newman, R. S. (2002). How self-regulated learners cope with academic difficulty: The role of adaptive help seeking. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 132-138.
Ryan, R. M., Connell, J. P., & Grolnick, W. S. (1992). When achievement is not intrinsically motivated: A theory of internalization and self-regulation in school. In K. Boggiano, & T. Pittman (Eds.), Achievement and motivation: A social development perspective (pp. 167-188). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schunk, D. H. (2003). Self-efficacy for reading and writing: Influence of modeling, goal setting, and self-evaluation.Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 159-172.
Schunk, D. H. (2005). Commentary on self-regulation in school contexts. Learning & Instruction, 15(2), 173-177.
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2007). Influencing children's self-efficacy and self-regulation of reading and writing through modeling. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 23(1), 7-25.
Seifert, T. L. (2004). Understanding student motivation. Educational Research, 46(2), 137-149.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2005). The hidden dimension of personal competence: Self regulated learning and practice. In A. J. Elliot, & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 509-526). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166-183.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Tsikalas, K. E. (2005). Can computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) be used as self-regulatory tools to enhance learning? Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 267-271.