Learning cannot happen without feedback, and that means learners need a clear picture of the progress that are (or are not) making. When assessments and feedback do not inform instruction or when they are not given to the students in a timely manner, learning cannot change because students do not know what to do differently. This lack of knowledge about what to improve can make some learners seem “perseverative,” careless, or unmotivated. For these learners all of the time, and for most learners some of the time, it is important to ensure that options can be customized to provide feedback that is more explicit, timely, informative, and accessible. Especially important is providing “formative” feedback that allows learners to monitor their own progress effectively and to use that information to guide their own effort and practice.
- Ask questions to guide self-monitoring and reflection
- Show representations of progress (e.g., before and after photos, graphs and charts showing progress over time, process portfolios)
- Prompt learners to identify the type of feedback or advice that they are seeking
- Use templates that guide self-reflection on quality and completeness
- Provide differentiated models of self-assessment strategies (e.g., role-playing, video reviews, peer feedback)
- Use of assessment checklists, scoring rubrics, and multiple examples of annotated student work/performance examples